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Although in principle they were the king's representatives and their charges could be revoked at the king's will, some governors had installed themselves and their heirs as a provincial dynasty. He too was threatened by instability of the throne, for the Stuart pretenders, long supported by King Louis XIV, threatened repeatedly to invade through Ireland or Scotland, and had significant internal support from the Tory faction. However, in , Francis I signed a new agreement with Pope Leo X , the Concordat of Bologna , which gave the king the right to nominate candidates and the pope the right of investiture ; this agreement infuriated gallicans, but gave the king control over important ecclesiastical offices with which to benefit nobles. Revolution was not due to a single event but to a series of events, that together irreversibly changed the organization of political power, the nature of society, and the exercise of individual freedoms. State finances also relied heavily on borrowing, both private from the great banking families in Europe and public. French Protestantism, which was largely Calvinist , derived its support from the lesser nobles and trading classes.

This system first came to use in under Francis I. At the start of the 16th century, the secular clergy curates , vicars , canons , etc. However, in , Francis I signed a new agreement with Pope Leo X , the Concordat of Bologna , which gave the king the right to nominate candidates and the pope the right of investiture ; this agreement infuriated gallicans, but gave the king control over important ecclesiastical offices with which to benefit nobles. Those Huguenots who stayed in France became Catholics and were called new converts.

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Before it was made illegal in , It had been possible to leave open-ended the date that the transfer of title was to take effect. As the revolution proceeded, power devolved from the monarchy and the privileged-by-birth to more-representative political bodies, like legislative assemblies, but conflicts among the formerly allied republican groups became the source of considerable discord and bloodshed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. The banking system in Paris was undeveloped, and the treasury was forced to borrow at very high interest rates. Peace terms called for the dismantling of the city's fortifications.

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One key to this centralization was the replacing of personal patronage systems organized around the king and other nobles by institutional systems around the state. The Wars of Religion saw this control over censorship however pass to the parliament, and in the 17th century to the royal censors, although the church maintained a right to petition. Until the French Revolution, the monastic community constituted a central element of the economic, social, and religious life of many localities under the Old Regime. Escalating the attack, he tried to forcibly re-Catholicize the Huguenots by the employment of armed dragonnades soldiers to occupy and loot their houses, and finally by the revocation Oct. For some observers the term came to denote a certain nostalgia. Furthermore, contact between American revolutionaries and the French troops who served as anti-British mercenaries in North America helped spread revolutionary ideals to the French people.

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He too was threatened by instability of the throne, for the Stuart pretenders, long supported by King Louis XIV, threatened repeatedly to invade through Ireland or Scotland, and had significant internal support from the Tory faction. Silver, Seapower and the Atlantic. However, a coalition of enemies, opposed to this rapid expansion of French power, quickly formed, and a major European war broke out Until the French Revolution, the monastic community constituted a central element of the economic, social, and religious life of many localities under the Old Regime.

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In addition to their role as appellate courts, regional parlements had gained the privilege to register the edicts of the king and to present the king with official complaints concerning the edicts; in this way, they had acquired a limited role as the representative voice of predominantly the magistrate class. Revolution was not due to a single event but to a series of events, that together irreversibly changed the organization of political power, the nature of society, and the exercise of individual freedoms. By the Huguenots were on the defensive, and the government increasingly applied pressure. The following were cours souveraines , or superior courts, whose decisions could only be revoked by the king in his conseil see administration section below.

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Those Huguenots who stayed in France became Catholics and were called new converts. He was Louis XV and he lived until the s. In addition to fiefs that church members possessed as seigneurs, the church also possessed seigneurial lands in its own right and enacted justice upon them. Local and regional governments, and the local nobility, controlled most of the decision-making. Intendants attached to a province had jurisdiction over finances, justice and policing. The term in French means old regime or former regime.

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A royal citadel was built and the university and consulate were taken over by the Catholic party. Certain provinces and cities had won special privileges such as lower rates in the gabelle or salt tax. The appeals from their sentences went to the bailliages , who also had jurisdiction in the first instance over actions brought against nobles. It had to import practically all its weapons.

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A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Revolution was not due to a single event but to a series of events, that together irreversibly changed the organization of political power, the nature of society, and the exercise of individual freedoms. The administration of the French state in the early modern period went through a long evolution, as a truly administrative apparatus — relying on old nobility, newer chancellor nobility noblesse de robe and administrative professionals — was substituted to the feudal clientel system. Queen Anne was dead, and her re-successor King George I was a Hanoverian who moved his court to London, but never learned English and surrounded himself with German advisors.

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What Is the Third Estate? A royal citadel was built and the university and consulate were taken over by the Catholic party. Royal officers chosen from the highest nobility, provincial and city governors oversight of provinces and cities was frequently combined were predominantly military positions in charge of defense and policing. The need for centralization in this period was directly linked to the question of royal finances and the ability to wage war. However, in , Francis I signed a new agreement with Pope Leo X , the Concordat of Bologna , which gave the king the right to nominate candidates and the pope the right of investiture ; this agreement infuriated gallicans, but gave the king control over important ecclesiastical offices with which to benefit nobles. A series of small civil wars that broke out in southern France between and were long considered by historians to be regional squabbles between rival noble families.

Furthermore, the prospect of dividing up Spanish holdings, especially its vast colonial possessions in the New World, prove very attractive. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe. Protestantism in France was considered a grave threat to national unity, as the Huguenot minority felt a closer affinity with German and Dutch Calvinists than with their fellow Frenchmen. Many of these fees were quite elevated, but some of these offices conferred nobility and could be financially advantageous. Louis XIV's decision to cross the Rhine in September was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims. In case of refusal on parliament's part to register the edicts frequently concerning fiscal matters , the king could impose registration through a royal assize lit de justice.

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A Chronicle of the French Revolution. The desire for more efficient tax collection was one of the major causes for French administrative and royal centralization in the early modern period. The term first appeared in print in English in , and was originally pejorative in nature: However, Louis XVI, his ministers, and the widespread French nobility had become immensely unpopular.

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Economic Change and Military Conflict from to It conjured up a society so encrusted with anachronisms that only a shock of great violence could free the living organism within. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. As a sign of French absolutism, they ceased to be convoked from to The paulette and the venality of offices became key concerns in the parlementarian revolts of the s La Fronde. The main source of royal administrative power in the provinces in the 16th and early 17th centuries fell to the gouverneurs who represented the presence of the king in his province , positions which had long been held by only the highest ranked families in the realm.

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Early modern France and Kingdom of France. Until the late 17th century, tax collectors were called receveurs. It had to import practically all its weapons. The ordinance of Blois of reduced their number to 12, and an ordinance of increased their number to 39 18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors. The banking system in Paris was undeveloped, and the treasury was forced to borrow at very high interest rates.

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