Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung in German. Rur with Aachen French: Studies in Environmental History for Richard C. A selection of the tallest buildings in Cologne is listed below. The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne in March to the Nazi Party and other right wing parties. The Cologne Stadtbahn operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe KVB  is an extensive light rail system that is partially underground and serves Cologne and a number of neighbouring cities.
In Cologne had 4. Besides its economic and political significance Cologne also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop Rainald of Dassel gave the relics of the Three Wise Men to Cologne's cathedral in after they, in fact, had been captured from Milan. Cologne competed to host the Olympics, and a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf. Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's Empire. Archived from the original on 4 March As members of an influential and powerful family, and supported by their outstanding status as electors , the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.
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Archived from the original on 4 March Historically, Cologne has always been an important trade city, with land, air, and sea connections. Cologne was also an important hotbed for electronic music in the s Studio für elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen and again from the s onward.
Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building. The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated an exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the church and the bourgeoisie and within it between the patricians and craftsmen have created its own political climate in Cologne. Rur with Aachen French: Cities in Germany by population. The observation deck has been closed since The resulting web of relationships, with political, economic, and cultural links with each other in a system of mutual favours, obligations and dependencies, is called the 'Cologne coterie'.
Some of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's historic heritage with much being demolished for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral and sometimes replaced by contemporary buildings. The airport is also the main hub of the airline Germanwings. City Councillors are elected for a five-year term and the Mayor has a six-year term. In addition, Cologne enjoys a thriving Christmas Market Weihnachtsmarkt presence with several locations in the city. In , during the Kulturkampf , Archbishop Paul Melchers was imprisoned before taking refuge in the Netherlands. It is also one of the cloudiest cities in Germany, with just hours of sun a year.
Cologne features regional and international authors. Other famous buildings include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus. Several clusters of media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state agencies work partly with private and government-funded cultural institutions. They are from south to north: In the city, the population was spread out with The average household size was 1.
The free city of Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire. Cologne has the country's highest density of pubs per capita. Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings, with a few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due to their historical importance. The observation deck has been closed since
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Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from and permanently from until Cologne was home to the th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment. Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building. Due to the economic success of the Cologne Trade Fair , the city arranged a large extension to the fair site in Film and TV production is also important. In January, the mean temperature is 2.
During the Bombing of Cologne in World War II , Cologne endured air raids  by the Western Allies , which caused approximately 20, civilian casualties and almost completely wiped out the central part of the city. Retrieved 17 April Temperatures can vary significantly over the course of a month with warmer and colder weather. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas.
- Compared to some other major cities, however, the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland ; it hosts more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. The reconstruction lasted until the s, when the Romanesque church of St. In , the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I , King of Germany. The sheltered climate in southeast Northrhine-Westphalia allows these birds to survive through the winter, and in some cases, they are displacing native species.
- The city is Germany's capital of TV crime stories. Several clusters of media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state agencies work partly with private and government-funded cultural institutions. Archived from the original PDF on 24 March Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 1 April Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich.
Cologne 1 Dortmund 1. It is also one of the cloudiest cities in Germany, with just hours of sun a year. Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building. Various interest groups often form networks beyond party boundaries.
Retrieved 18 October In addition, Cologne enjoys a thriving Christmas Market Weihnachtsmarkt presence with several locations in the city. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. Cologne is well known for its beer, called Kölsch. Retrieved 24 July
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The plumage of Cologne's green parrots is highly visible even from a distance, and contrasts starkly with the otherwise muted colours of the cityscape. Other famous buildings include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus. In the s and s Cologne's economy prospered for two main reasons.